Dr. Günther Ruhl

  • Chemie
  • Materialwissenschaften
  • Analytik

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

TCTS O 17

09923/80108-506


Patent
  • R. Rupp
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
Silicon carbide semiconductor device and a method for forming a silicon carbide semiconductor device
  • 2020
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • W. Lehnert
  • G. Metzger-Brueckl
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Wafer composite and method for producing semiconductor components
  • 2020
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • W. Lehnert
  • G. Metzger-Brueckl
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Wafer composite and method for producing semiconductor components
  • 2020
Patent
  • R. Rupp
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
Silicon carbide semiconductor device and a method for forming a silicon carbide semiconductor device
  • 2020
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Semiconductor devices and methods for forming semiconductor devices
  • 2019
Patent
  • H. Theuss
  • G. Beer
  • S. Beer
  • A. Dehe
  • F. Jost
  • S. Kolb
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Schaller
Photo-acoustic gas sensor module having light emitter and detector units
  • 2019
Contribution
  • Alois Kasberger
  • Benedikt Winter
  • T. Ullrich
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Raimund Förg
Entwicklung einer wasserdichten LED Flächenleuchte mit direkt im Glas eingebrachtem Konvertermaterial Poster
  • 2019
Patent
JournalArticle
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Gahoi
  • S. Wittman
  • T. Preis
  • J.-M. Batke
  • I. Costina
  • M. Lemme
Accurate Graphene-Metal Junction Characterization , vol7
  • 2019

DOI: 10.1109/JEDS.2019.2891516

A reliable method is proposed for measuring specific contact resistivity (p C ) for graphenemetal contacts, which is based on a contact end resistance measurement. We investigate the proposed method with simulations and confirm that the sheet resistance under the metal contact (R SK ) plays an important role, as it influences the potential barrier at the graphene-metal junction. Two different complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible aluminum-based contacts are investigated to demonstrate the importance of the sheet resistance under the metal contact: the difference in R SK arises from the formation of insulating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) interfacial layers, which depends on the graphene pretreatment and process conditions. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy support electrical data. The method allows direct measurements of contact parameters with one contact pair and enables small test structures. It is further more reliable than the conventional transfer length method when the sheet resistance of the material under the contact is large. The proposed method is thus ideal for geometrically small contacts where it minimizes measurement errors and it can be applied in particular to study emerging devices and materials.
Patent
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
Schichtstruktur und Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Schichtstruktur
  • 2019
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Czieslok
  • Raimund Förg
Sensorik mit 2D-Materialien
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • G. Lippert
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • T. Zimmer
Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device having graphene material
  • 2019
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Semiconductor devices and methods for forming semiconductor devices
  • 2019
Lecture
  • Alois Kasberger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Stefan Menzel
  • Raimund Förg
Development of a waterproof, high color fidelity LED Light Panel
  • 2019
Patent
  • J. Laven
  • P. Irsigler
  • J. Mahler
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Zundel
Semiconductor device including a heat sink structure
  • 2019
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Czieslok
  • Raimund Förg
Sensorik mit 2D-Materialien
  • 2019
Patent
  • T. Spöttl
  • J. Pohl
  • F. Püschner
  • Günther Ruhl
Elektronisches Identifikationsdokument und Verfahren zur Herstellung eines elektronischen Identifikationsdokuments
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Hirsch
  • G. Poeppel
  • H. Roedig
Sensor arrangement for particle analysis and a method for particle analysis
  • 2019
Patent
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Berger
  • A. Birner
  • H. Brech
  • O. Haeberlen
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Method of manufacturing semiconductor devices by bonding a semiconductor disk on a base substrate, composite wafer and semiconductor device
  • 2019
Contribution
  • Alois Kasberger
  • Benedikt Winter
  • T. Ullrich
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Raimund Förg
Entwicklung einer wasserdichten LED Flächenleuchte mit direkt im Glas eingebrachtem Konvertermaterial Poster
  • 2019
Patent
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
Schichtstruktur und Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Schichtstruktur
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Hirsch
  • G. Poeppel
  • H. Roedig
Sensor arrangement for particle analysis and a method for particle analysis
  • 2019
Patent
  • H. Theuss
  • G. Beer
  • S. Beer
  • A. Dehe
  • F. Jost
  • S. Kolb
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Schaller
Photo-acoustic gas sensor module having light emitter and detector units
  • 2019
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
Fahrzeugbeleuchtungsanordnung, Leuchtmitteltreiberschaltung und Verfahren zur Bereitstellung von Informationen zur Bestimmung eines Beleuchtungszustandes
  • 2019
Patent
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. König
Process for the formation of a graphene membrane component, graphene membrane component, microphone and Hall-effect sensor
  • 2019
Lecture
  • Alois Kasberger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Stefan Menzel
  • Raimund Förg
Development of a waterproof, high color fidelity LED Light Panel
  • 2019
JournalArticle
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Gahoi
  • S. Wittman
  • T. Preis
  • J.-M. Batke
  • I. Costina
  • M. Lemme
Accurate Graphene-Metal Junction Characterization , vol7
  • 2019

DOI: 10.1109/JEDS.2019.2891516

A reliable method is proposed for measuring specific contact resistivity (p C ) for graphenemetal contacts, which is based on a contact end resistance measurement. We investigate the proposed method with simulations and confirm that the sheet resistance under the metal contact (R SK ) plays an important role, as it influences the potential barrier at the graphene-metal junction. Two different complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible aluminum-based contacts are investigated to demonstrate the importance of the sheet resistance under the metal contact: the difference in R SK arises from the formation of insulating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) interfacial layers, which depends on the graphene pretreatment and process conditions. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy support electrical data. The method allows direct measurements of contact parameters with one contact pair and enables small test structures. It is further more reliable than the conventional transfer length method when the sheet resistance of the material under the contact is large. The proposed method is thus ideal for geometrically small contacts where it minimizes measurement errors and it can be applied in particular to study emerging devices and materials.
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
Fahrzeugbeleuchtungsanordnung, Leuchtmitteltreiberschaltung und Verfahren zur Bereitstellung von Informationen zur Bestimmung eines Beleuchtungszustandes
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • G. Lippert
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • T. Zimmer
Method of manufacturing a semiconductor device having graphene material
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. König
Process for the formation of a graphene membrane component, graphene membrane component, microphone and Hall-effect sensor
  • 2019
Patent
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Berger
  • A. Birner
  • H. Brech
  • O. Haeberlen
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Method of manufacturing semiconductor devices by bonding a semiconductor disk on a base substrate, composite wafer and semiconductor device
  • 2019
Patent
  • T. Spöttl
  • J. Pohl
  • F. Püschner
  • Günther Ruhl
Elektronisches Identifikationsdokument und Verfahren zur Herstellung eines elektronischen Identifikationsdokuments
  • 2019
Patent
  • J. Laven
  • P. Irsigler
  • J. Mahler
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Zundel
Semiconductor device including a heat sink structure
  • 2019
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Hirsch
  • A. Zoepfl
Graphene gas sensor for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in gas environments
  • 2018
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • J. Dangelmaier
  • F. Darrer
  • T. Mueller
  • M. Vaupel
  • M. Fries
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • M. Rose
  • S. Auer
  • Wee, T. F. D.
  • S. Chiang
Sensor arrangement, battery cell and energy system
  • 2018
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Semiconductor device including a phase change material
  • 2018
Patent
  • M. Koenig
  • Günther Ruhl
Method for processing a carrier and method for transferring a graphene layer
  • 2018
Lecture
  • Liane Bingel
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Raimund Förg
Glas als Verpackungsmaterial für Lebensmittel Posterpräsentation
  • 2018
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Semiconductor device including a phase change material
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • T. Zimmer
  • W. Lippert
Semiconductor device having a graphene layer, and method manufactoring thereof
  • 2018
Patent
  • M. Koenig
  • Günther Ruhl
Method for processing a carrier and method for transferring a graphene layer
  • 2018
Lecture
  • Liane Bingel
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Raimund Förg
Glas als Verpackungsmaterial für Lebensmittel Posterpräsentation
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K.-O. Subke
  • R. Berger
Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Grabenkondensators
  • 2018
Patent
  • T. Spoettl
  • F. Pueschner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Stampka P.
Semiconductor package, smart card and method for producing a semiconductor package
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Koenig
Process for the formation of a graphene membrane component, graphene membrane component, microphone and Hall-effect sensor
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • T. Zimmer
  • W. Lippert
Semiconductor device having a graphene layer, and method manufactoring thereof
  • 2018
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • J. Dangelmaier
  • F. Darrer
  • T. Mueller
  • M. Vaupel
  • M. Fries
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • M. Rose
  • S. Auer
  • Wee, T. F. D.
  • S. Chiang
Sensor arrangement, battery cell and energy system
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Hirsch
  • A. Zoepfl
Graphene gas sensor for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in gas environments
  • 2018
Patent
  • T. Spoettl
  • F. Pueschner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • Stampka P.
Semiconductor package, smart card and method for producing a semiconductor package
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K.-O. Subke
  • R. Berger
Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Grabenkondensators
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Koenig
Process for the formation of a graphene membrane component, graphene membrane component, microphone and Hall-effect sensor
  • 2018
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Berger
Two-dimensional material containing electronic components
  • 2017
Patent
  • J. Mahler
  • R. Otremba
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Power semiconductor device including a cooling material
  • 2017
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • J. Dangelmaier
  • M. Fies
  • J. Hoegerl
  • G. Meyer-Berg
  • T. Mueller
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • M. Vaupel
Apparatus for determining a state of a rechargeable battery or of a battery, a rechargeable battery or a battery, and a method for determining a state of a rechargeable battery or of a battery
  • 2017
Patent
  • J. Mahler
  • R. Otremba
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Power semiconductor device including a cooling material
  • 2017
Patent
  • M. Eckinger
  • A. Dehe
  • S. Kolb
  • Günther Ruhl
Hall effect sensor with graphene detection layer
  • 2017
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2017
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • P. Irsigler
  • Günther Ruhl
Method of forming a graphene structure
  • 2017
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K. Pruegl
Method for processing a carrier
  • 2017
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Bachl
Fluid sensor chip and method for manufacturing the same
  • 2017
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Bachl
Fluid sensor chip and method for manufacturing the same
  • 2017
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Berger
Two-dimensional material containing electronic components
  • 2017
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • P. Irsigler
  • Günther Ruhl
Method of forming a graphene structure
  • 2017
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • J. Dangelmaier
  • M. Fies
  • J. Hoegerl
  • G. Meyer-Berg
  • T. Mueller
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • M. Vaupel
Apparatus for determining a state of a rechargeable battery or of a battery, a rechargeable battery or a battery, and a method for determining a state of a rechargeable battery or of a battery
  • 2017
JournalArticle
  • F. Streb
  • M. Mengel
  • D. Schweitzer
  • C. Kasztelan
  • P. Schoderböck
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Lampke
Characterization methods for solid thermal interface materials , vol8
  • 2017

DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2017.2748238

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a major role in the performance of semiconductor devices by optimizing the thermal contact between device and heatsink. Their influence is further increasing with the usage of novel chip materials such as SiC and GaN. In this methodology study, we compared five of the most established evaluation methods for solid TIMs with each other: transient plane source, LaserFlash, DynTIM, TIMA, and an application-oriented Rth measurement system. We investigated a wide range of typical TIMs in order to explore the limits of the different measurement systems. The results show that, despite existing norms, the used characterization method has a significant influence on the measured thermal conductivity. We also show that the temperature and pressure dependence has a significant influence on the thermal performance of TIMs and that these data need to be included in device specifications. Additionally, detailed error analysis and discussion about sample selection, error influence, and measurement effort for the presented methods are given.
JournalArticle
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Wittmann
  • M. König
  • D. Neumaier
The integration of graphene into microelectronic devices , vol8
  • 2017

DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.8.107

Since 2004 the field of graphene research has attracted increasing interest worldwide. Especially the integration of graphene into microelectronic devices has the potential for numerous applications. Therefore, we summarize the current knowledge on this aspect. Surveys show that considerable progress was made in the field of graphene synthesis. However, the central issue consists of the availability of techniques suitable for production for the deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates. Besides, the encapsulation of graphene for further processing while maintaining its properties poses a challenge. Regarding the graphene/metal contact intensive research was done and recently substantial advancements were made towards contact resistances applicable for electronic devices. Generally speaking the crucial issues for graphene integration are identified today and the corresponding research tasks can be clearly defined.
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2017
Patent
  • M. Eckinger
  • A. Dehe
  • S. Kolb
  • Günther Ruhl
Hall effect sensor with graphene detection layer
  • 2017
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K. Pruegl
Method for processing a carrier
  • 2017
JournalArticle
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Wittmann
  • M. König
  • D. Neumaier
The integration of graphene into microelectronic devices , vol8
  • 2017

DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.8.107

Since 2004 the field of graphene research has attracted increasing interest worldwide. Especially the integration of graphene into microelectronic devices has the potential for numerous applications. Therefore, we summarize the current knowledge on this aspect. Surveys show that considerable progress was made in the field of graphene synthesis. However, the central issue consists of the availability of techniques suitable for production for the deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates. Besides, the encapsulation of graphene for further processing while maintaining its properties poses a challenge. Regarding the graphene/metal contact intensive research was done and recently substantial advancements were made towards contact resistances applicable for electronic devices. Generally speaking the crucial issues for graphene integration are identified today and the corresponding research tasks can be clearly defined.
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2017
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2017
JournalArticle
  • F. Streb
  • M. Mengel
  • D. Schweitzer
  • C. Kasztelan
  • P. Schoderböck
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Lampke
Characterization methods for solid thermal interface materials , vol8
  • 2017

DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2017.2748238

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a major role in the performance of semiconductor devices by optimizing the thermal contact between device and heatsink. Their influence is further increasing with the usage of novel chip materials such as SiC and GaN. In this methodology study, we compared five of the most established evaluation methods for solid TIMs with each other: transient plane source, LaserFlash, DynTIM, TIMA, and an application-oriented Rth measurement system. We investigated a wide range of typical TIMs in order to explore the limits of the different measurement systems. The results show that, despite existing norms, the used characterization method has a significant influence on the measured thermal conductivity. We also show that the temperature and pressure dependence has a significant influence on the thermal performance of TIMs and that these data need to be included in device specifications. Additionally, detailed error analysis and discussion about sample selection, error influence, and measurement effort for the presented methods are given.
Patent
  • A. Dehe
  • Günther Ruhl
MEMS acoustic transducer, MEMS microphone, MEMS microspeaker, array of speakers and method for manufacturing an acoustic transducer
  • 2016
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • A. Mauder
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Composite wafer for bonding and encapsulation of a SiC-based functional layer
  • 2016
Patent
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
Electrical contact for graphene part
  • 2016
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K. Pruegl
Method for processing a carrier and an electronic component
  • 2016
Patent
  • C. Kegler
  • J. Laven
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • J. Mahler
Temperature sensor
  • 2016
JournalArticle
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • J.-M. Batke
  • M. Lemme
Self-organized growth of graphene nanomesh with increased gas sensitivity , vol8
  • 2016
Patent
  • C. Kegler
  • J. Laven
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • J. Mahler
Temperature sensor
  • 2016
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2016
Patent
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • A. Mauder
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Rupp
Composite wafer for bonding and encapsulation of a SiC-based functional layer
  • 2016
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Challenges in process integration of graphene for manufacturing microelectronic devices eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2016
JournalArticle
  • F. Streb
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Schubert
  • H. Zeidler
  • M. Penzel
  • S. Flemmig
  • I. Todaro
  • R. Squatrito
  • T. Lampke
Simulations and measurements of annealed pyrolytic graphite-metal composite baseplates , vol118
  • 2016
We investigated the usability of anisotropic materials as inserts in aluminum-matrix-composite baseplates for typical high performance power semiconductor modules using finite-element simulations and transient plane source measurements. For simulations, several physical modules can be used, which are suitable for different thermal boundary conditions. By comparing different modules and options of heat transfer we found non-isothermal simulations to be closest to reality for temperature distribution at the surface of the heat sink. We optimized the geometry of the graphite inserts for best heat dissipation and based on these results evaluated the thermal resistance of a typical power module using calculation time optimized steady-state simulations. Here we investigated the influence of thermal contact conductance (TCC) between metal matrix and inserts on the heat dissipation. We found improved heat dissipation compared to the plain metal baseplate for a TCC of 200 kW/m2/K and above.To verify the simulations we evaluated cast composite baseplates with two different insert geometries and measured their averaged lateral thermal conductivity using a transient plane source (HotDisk) technique at room temperature. For the composite baseplate we achieved local improvements in heat dissipation compared to the plain metal baseplate.
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Bachl
Fluid sensor chip and method for manufacturing the same
  • 2016
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F. Bachl
Fluid sensor chip and method for manufacturing the same
  • 2016
Patent
  • A. Dehe
  • Günther Ruhl
MEMS acoustic transducer, MEMS microphone, MEMS microspeaker, array of speakers and method for manufacturing an acoustic transducer
  • 2016
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
Electrical contact for graphene part
  • 2016
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2016
JournalArticle
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • J.-M. Batke
  • M. Lemme
Self-organized growth of graphene nanomesh with increased gas sensitivity , vol8
  • 2016
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • K. Pruegl
Method for processing a carrier and an electronic component
  • 2016
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Challenges in process integration of graphene for manufacturing microelectronic devices eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2016
JournalArticle
  • F. Streb
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Schubert
  • H. Zeidler
  • M. Penzel
  • S. Flemmig
  • I. Todaro
  • R. Squatrito
  • T. Lampke
Simulations and measurements of annealed pyrolytic graphite-metal composite baseplates , vol118
  • 2016
We investigated the usability of anisotropic materials as inserts in aluminum-matrix-composite baseplates for typical high performance power semiconductor modules using finite-element simulations and transient plane source measurements. For simulations, several physical modules can be used, which are suitable for different thermal boundary conditions. By comparing different modules and options of heat transfer we found non-isothermal simulations to be closest to reality for temperature distribution at the surface of the heat sink. We optimized the geometry of the graphite inserts for best heat dissipation and based on these results evaluated the thermal resistance of a typical power module using calculation time optimized steady-state simulations. Here we investigated the influence of thermal contact conductance (TCC) between metal matrix and inserts on the heat dissipation. We found improved heat dissipation compared to the plain metal baseplate for a TCC of 200 kW/m2/K and above.To verify the simulations we evaluated cast composite baseplates with two different insert geometries and measured their averaged lateral thermal conductivity using a transient plane source (HotDisk) technique at room temperature. For the composite baseplate we achieved local improvements in heat dissipation compared to the plain metal baseplate.
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • H. Theuss
  • Günther Ruhl
Sensor module and battery elements
  • 2015
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2015
Patent
  • M. Vaupel
  • Günther Ruhl
Semiconductor dies having opposite sides with different reflectivity
  • 2015
Patent
  • M. Vaupel
  • Günther Ruhl
Semiconductor dies having opposite sides with different reflectivity
  • 2015
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Sensorbauelement und Verfahren
  • 2015
JournalArticle
  • G. Lupina
  • J. Kitzmann
  • I. Costina
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • A. Wolff
  • S. Vaziri
  • M. Östling
  • I. Pasternak
  • A. Krajewska
  • W. Strupinski
  • S. Kataria
  • A. Gahoi
  • M. Lemme
  • Günther Ruhl
  • G. Zoth
  • O. Luxenhofer
  • W. Mehr
Residual Metallic Contamination of Transferred Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene , vol9
  • 2015

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b01261

Integration of graphene with Si microelectronics is very appealing by offering a potentially broad range of new functionalities. New materials to be integrated with the Si platform must conform to stringent purity standards. Here, we investigate graphene layers grown on copper foils by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to silicon wafers by wet etching and electrochemical delamination methods with respect to residual submonolayer metallic contaminations. Regardless of the transfer method and associated cleaning scheme, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements indicate that the graphene sheets are contaminated with residual metals (copper, iron) with a concentration exceeding 1013 atoms/cm2. These metal impurities appear to be partially mobile upon thermal treatment, as shown by depth profiling and reduction of the minority charge carrier diffusion length in the silicon substrate. As residual metallic impurities can significantly alter electronic and electrochemical properties of graphene and can severely impede the process of integration with silicon microelectronics, these results reveal that further progress in synthesis, handling, and cleaning of graphene is required to advance electronic and optoelectronic applications.
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • H. Theuss
  • Günther Ruhl
Sensor module and battery elements
  • 2015
JournalArticle
  • G. Lupina
  • J. Kitzmann
  • I. Costina
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • A. Wolff
  • S. Vaziri
  • M. Östling
  • I. Pasternak
  • A. Krajewska
  • W. Strupinski
  • S. Kataria
  • A. Gahoi
  • M. Lemme
  • Günther Ruhl
  • G. Zoth
  • O. Luxenhofer
  • W. Mehr
Residual Metallic Contamination of Transferred Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene , vol9
  • 2015

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b01261

Integration of graphene with Si microelectronics is very appealing by offering a potentially broad range of new functionalities. New materials to be integrated with the Si platform must conform to stringent purity standards. Here, we investigate graphene layers grown on copper foils by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to silicon wafers by wet etching and electrochemical delamination methods with respect to residual submonolayer metallic contaminations. Regardless of the transfer method and associated cleaning scheme, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements indicate that the graphene sheets are contaminated with residual metals (copper, iron) with a concentration exceeding 1013 atoms/cm2. These metal impurities appear to be partially mobile upon thermal treatment, as shown by depth profiling and reduction of the minority charge carrier diffusion length in the silicon substrate. As residual metallic impurities can significantly alter electronic and electrochemical properties of graphene and can severely impede the process of integration with silicon microelectronics, these results reveal that further progress in synthesis, handling, and cleaning of graphene is required to advance electronic and optoelectronic applications.
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Rupp
Compound structure and method for forming a compound structure
  • 2015
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2015
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2015
JournalArticle
  • S. Vaziri
  • A. Smith
  • M. Östling
  • G. Lupina
  • J. Dabrowski
  • G. Lippert
  • W. Mehr
  • F. Driussi
  • S. Venica
  • V. Di Leece
  • A. Gnudi
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Belete
  • M. Lemme
Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors , vol224
  • 2015

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssc.2015.08.012

Patent
  • K. Elian
  • H. Theuss
  • Günther Ruhl
Sensor package and method of manufacturing thereof
  • 2015
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Semiconductor device including a phase change material
  • 2015
Patent
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H.-J. Timme
Semiconductor device including a phase change material
  • 2015
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2015
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • H. Theuss
  • Günther Ruhl
Sensor package and method of manufacturing thereof
  • 2015
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • R. Rupp
Compound structure and method for forming a compound structure
  • 2015
JournalArticle
  • S. Vaziri
  • A. Smith
  • M. Östling
  • G. Lupina
  • J. Dabrowski
  • G. Lippert
  • W. Mehr
  • F. Driussi
  • S. Venica
  • V. Di Leece
  • A. Gnudi
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Belete
  • M. Lemme
Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors , vol224
  • 2015

DOI: 10.1016/j.ssc.2015.08.012

Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Sensorbauelement und Verfahren
  • 2015
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Perspective of ICT industry on the use of graphene Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
Integriertes Bauelement und Verfahren zur Trennung einer elektrisch leitfähigen Verbindung
  • 2014
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Graphene - Balancing the Elephant Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2014
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Strasser
  • M. Melzl
  • R. Goellner
  • D. Groteloh
Method of processing a contact pad, method of manufacturing a contact pad, and integrated circuit element
  • 2014
Patent
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Perspective of ICT industry on the use of graphene Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Graphene- Balancing the Elephant Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
JournalArticle
  • A. Zöpfl
  • M.-M. Lemberger
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F.-M. Matysik
  • T. Hirsch
Reduced graphene oxide and graphene composite materials for improved gas sensing at low temperature , vol173
  • 2014

DOI: 10.1039/c4fd00086b

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was investigated as a material for use in chemiresistive gas sensors. The carbon nanomaterial was transferred onto a silicon wafer with interdigital gold electrodes. Spin coating turned out to be the most reliable transfer technique, resulting in consistent rGO layers of reproducible quality. Fast changes in the electrical resistance at a low operating temperature of 85 °C could be detected for the gases NO(2), CH(4) and H(2). Especially upon adsorption of NO(2) the high signal changes allowed a minimum detection of 0.3 ppm (S/N = 3). To overcome the poor selectivity, rGO was chemically functionalized with octadecylamine, or modified by doping with metal nanoparticles such as Pd and Pt, and also metal oxides such as MnO(2), and TiO(2). The different response patterns for six different materials allowed the discrimination of all of the test gases by pattern recognition based on principal component analysis.
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
Integriertes Bauelement und Verfahren zur Trennung einer elektrisch leitfähigen Verbindung
  • 2014
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
  • M. Sommer
  • C. Rottmair
  • R. Rupp
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2014
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Perspectives of Graphene in Semiconductor Industry eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Patent
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2014
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Graphene - Balancing the Elephant Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Graphene- Balancing the Elephant Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Strasser
  • M. Melzl
  • R. Goellner
  • D. Groteloh
Method of processing a contact pad, method of manufacturing a contact pad, and integrated circuit element
  • 2014
JournalArticle
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • T. Blomberg
  • S. Haukkac
  • P. Baumann
  • W. Besling
  • A. Roeste
  • B. Riou
  • S. Lhostif
  • A. Halimaou
  • F. Roozeboom
  • E. Langereis
  • W.M.M. Kessels
  • A. Zauner
  • S. Rushworth
Dielectric Material Options for Integrated Capacitors , vol3
  • 2014

DOI: 10.1149/2.0101408jss

Future MIM capacitor generations will require significantly increased specific capacitances by utilization of high-k dielectric materials. In order to achieve high capacitance per chip area, these dielectrics have to be deposited in three-dimensional capacitor structures by ALD or AVD (atomic vapor deposition) process techniques. In this study eight dielectric materials, which can be deposited by these techniques and exhibit the potential to reach k-values of over 50 were identified, prepared and characterized as single films and stacked film systems. To primarily focus on a material comparison, preliminary processes were used for film deposition on planar test devices. Measuring leakage current density versus the dielectric constant k shows that at low voltages (≤1 V) dielectrics with k-values up to 100 satisfy the typical leakage current density specification of <10−7 A/cm2 for MIM capacitors. At higher voltages (3 V) this specification is only fulfilled for dielectrics with k-values below 45. As a consequence, the maximum achievable capacitance gain by introducing high-k dielectrics depends on the operating voltage of the application, such as DRAM capacitors or RF and blocking capacitors. To meet the reliability requirements for RF and blocking capacitors, high-k dielectric film thicknesses of up to 50 nm are necessary.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
Perspectives of Graphene in Semiconductor Industry eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2014
Patent
  • K. Elian
  • Günther Ruhl
  • H. Theuss
  • I. Escher-Poeppel
Method for making a sensor device using a graphene layer
  • 2014
JournalArticle
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • T. Blomberg
  • S. Haukkac
  • P. Baumann
  • W. Besling
  • A. Roeste
  • B. Riou
  • S. Lhostif
  • A. Halimaou
  • F. Roozeboom
  • E. Langereis
  • W.M.M. Kessels
  • A. Zauner
  • S. Rushworth
Dielectric Material Options for Integrated Capacitors , vol3
  • 2014

DOI: 10.1149/2.0101408jss

Future MIM capacitor generations will require significantly increased specific capacitances by utilization of high-k dielectric materials. In order to achieve high capacitance per chip area, these dielectrics have to be deposited in three-dimensional capacitor structures by ALD or AVD (atomic vapor deposition) process techniques. In this study eight dielectric materials, which can be deposited by these techniques and exhibit the potential to reach k-values of over 50 were identified, prepared and characterized as single films and stacked film systems. To primarily focus on a material comparison, preliminary processes were used for film deposition on planar test devices. Measuring leakage current density versus the dielectric constant k shows that at low voltages (≤1 V) dielectrics with k-values up to 100 satisfy the typical leakage current density specification of <10−7 A/cm2 for MIM capacitors. At higher voltages (3 V) this specification is only fulfilled for dielectrics with k-values below 45. As a consequence, the maximum achievable capacitance gain by introducing high-k dielectrics depends on the operating voltage of the application, such as DRAM capacitors or RF and blocking capacitors. To meet the reliability requirements for RF and blocking capacitors, high-k dielectric film thicknesses of up to 50 nm are necessary.
JournalArticle
  • A. Zöpfl
  • M.-M. Lemberger
  • M. König
  • Günther Ruhl
  • F.-M. Matysik
  • T. Hirsch
Reduced graphene oxide and graphene composite materials for improved gas sensing at low temperature , vol173
  • 2014

DOI: 10.1039/c4fd00086b

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was investigated as a material for use in chemiresistive gas sensors. The carbon nanomaterial was transferred onto a silicon wafer with interdigital gold electrodes. Spin coating turned out to be the most reliable transfer technique, resulting in consistent rGO layers of reproducible quality. Fast changes in the electrical resistance at a low operating temperature of 85 °C could be detected for the gases NO(2), CH(4) and H(2). Especially upon adsorption of NO(2) the high signal changes allowed a minimum detection of 0.3 ppm (S/N = 3). To overcome the poor selectivity, rGO was chemically functionalized with octadecylamine, or modified by doping with metal nanoparticles such as Pd and Pt, and also metal oxides such as MnO(2), and TiO(2). The different response patterns for six different materials allowed the discrimination of all of the test gases by pattern recognition based on principal component analysis.
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2013
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
Properties of stacked SrTiO3/Al2O3 metal–insulator–metal capacitors , vol31
  • 2013

DOI: 10.1116/1.4766183

The possibilities to grow thin films of SrTiO3 and Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition for stacked metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been investigated in this work. In order to tune the functional properties of the capacitors, different processing steps have been employed to realize different combinations of the dielectric stacks. Electrical properties, extracted after the postdeposition annealing and sputter deposition of the Au top electrodes, indicated that the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with additional Al2O3 layer provided better leakage currents densities, compared to the ones with single SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors, but the dielectric constant values have also decreased if additional Al2O3 film was inserted. Attempts to optimize the properties of the MIM stacks have been done by manufacturing heterostructures of Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 as well as SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3. In the first case, Al2O3 prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric structure and therefore reduced the total capacitance density of the particular MIM stack, whereas the SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3 stack was found to possess superior electrical properties. Leakage current density as low as ∼10−8 A/cm2 at 2 V and the dielectric constant value of 40 have been extracted.
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
System for separation of an electrically conductive connection
  • 2013
Patent
  • R. Berger
  • H. Gruber
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • R. Foerg
  • A. Mauder
  • H.-J. Schulze
Method for manufacturing a composite wafer having a graphite core, and composite wafer having a graphite core
  • 2013
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
Properties of stacked SrTiO3/Al2O3 metal–insulator–metal capacitors , vol31
  • 2013

DOI: 10.1116/1.4766183

The possibilities to grow thin films of SrTiO3 and Al2O3 by atomic layer deposition for stacked metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been investigated in this work. In order to tune the functional properties of the capacitors, different processing steps have been employed to realize different combinations of the dielectric stacks. Electrical properties, extracted after the postdeposition annealing and sputter deposition of the Au top electrodes, indicated that the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structures with additional Al2O3 layer provided better leakage currents densities, compared to the ones with single SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors, but the dielectric constant values have also decreased if additional Al2O3 film was inserted. Attempts to optimize the properties of the MIM stacks have been done by manufacturing heterostructures of Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 as well as SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3. In the first case, Al2O3 prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric structure and therefore reduced the total capacitance density of the particular MIM stack, whereas the SrTiO3/Al2O3/SrTiO3 stack was found to possess superior electrical properties. Leakage current density as low as ∼10−8 A/cm2 at 2 V and the dielectric constant value of 40 have been extracted.
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
System for separation of an electrically conductive connection
  • 2013
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • S. Kubotsch
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Properties of atomic-vapor and atomic-layer deposited Sr, Ti, and Nb doped Ta2O5 Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors , vol520
  • 2012

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.199

Atomic Vapor Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition techniques were applied for the depositions of Ta2O5, Ti–Ta–O, Sr–Ta–O and Nb–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Structural and electrical properties were studied. Films, deposited on the TiN bottom electrodes, in the temperature range of 225–400 °C, were amorphous, whereas the post deposition annealing at 600 °C resulted in the crystallization of Nb–Ta–O films. Electrical properties of MIM structures, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics were different for each oxide. On one hand, Ti–Ta–O based MIM capacitors possessed the highest dielectric constant (50), but the leakages currents were also the highest (~ 10− 5 A/cm2 at − 2 V). On the other hand, Sr–Ta–O showed the lowest leakage current densities (~ 10− 9 A/cm2 at − 2 V) as well as the smallest capacitance–voltage nonlinearity coefficients (40 ppm/V2), but the dielectric constant was the smallest (20). The highest nonlinearity coefficients (290 ppm/V2) were observed for Nb–Ta–O based MIM capacitors, although relatively high dielectric constant (40) and low leakage currents (~ 10− 7 A/cm2 at − 2 V) were measured. Temperature dependent leakage-voltage measurements revealed that only Sr–Ta–O showed no dependence of leakage current as a function of the measurement temperature.
Patent
  • M. Engelhardt
  • H.-J. Timme
  • I. Nikitin
  • M. Frank
  • T. Kunstmann
  • W. Robl
  • Günther Ruhl
Method of processing a semiconductor wafer or die, and particle deposition device
  • 2012
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • T. Blomberg
  • D. Walcyk
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors with ALD grown SrTiO3: Influence of Pt electrodes , vol41
  • 2012
Metal-Insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric have been investigated in this work. Structural and electrical properties were studied after the formation of the MIM stack consisting of the platinum (Pt) bottom electrode, 50 nm SrTiO3 layer and the top Pt electrode. The as deposited films were amorphous and had a dielectric constant of ~ 10, whereas the annealing of the samples in the nitrogen (N2) or oxygen (O2) atmosphere at 550-600 °C led to the crystallization of the SrTiO3 and therefore to the increased dielectric constant of ~ 85. In addition, the electrical results revealed that the combination of SrTiO3 with the high work function electrode like Pt, provided better leakage current performance in comparison with TiN/ SrTiO3 stacks. The values as low as ~ 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V were observed for both in N2 or O2 annealed SrTiO3 layers. On the other hand, the samples annealed in O2 atmosphere at 600 °C possessed lower capacitance-voltage nonlinearity coefficients (−645 ppm/V2) than the ones for N2 annealed samples (-2700 ppm/V2).
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Lukosius
Material Options for Integrated MIM Capacitors Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2012
Patent
  • M. Engelhardt
  • H.-J. Timme
  • I. Nikitin
  • M. Frank
  • T. Kunstmann
  • W. Robl
  • Günther Ruhl
Method of processing a semiconductor wafer or die, and particle deposition device
  • 2012
JournalArticle
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Gschwandtner
Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide , vol30
  • 2012

DOI: 10.1116/1.3670876

Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO2 is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO2 are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO2 with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO2 is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiOx with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al2O3 interlayers between electrode and TiO2, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiOx deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 × 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO2 is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • T. Blomberg
  • D. Walcyk
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors with ALD grown SrTiO3: Influence of Pt electrodes , vol41
  • 2012
Metal-Insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric have been investigated in this work. Structural and electrical properties were studied after the formation of the MIM stack consisting of the platinum (Pt) bottom electrode, 50 nm SrTiO3 layer and the top Pt electrode. The as deposited films were amorphous and had a dielectric constant of ~ 10, whereas the annealing of the samples in the nitrogen (N2) or oxygen (O2) atmosphere at 550-600 °C led to the crystallization of the SrTiO3 and therefore to the increased dielectric constant of ~ 85. In addition, the electrical results revealed that the combination of SrTiO3 with the high work function electrode like Pt, provided better leakage current performance in comparison with TiN/ SrTiO3 stacks. The values as low as ~ 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V were observed for both in N2 or O2 annealed SrTiO3 layers. On the other hand, the samples annealed in O2 atmosphere at 600 °C possessed lower capacitance-voltage nonlinearity coefficients (−645 ppm/V2) than the ones for N2 annealed samples (-2700 ppm/V2).
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Lukosius
Material Options for Integrated MIM Capacitors Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2012
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • A. Abrutis
  • G. Lupina
  • P. Baumann
  • Günther Ruhl
Electrical and Morphological Properties of ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-Type Dielectrics and Their Stacks for Metal-Insulator-Metal Applications , vol1
  • 2012
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • A. Abrutis
  • G. Lupina
  • P. Baumann
  • Günther Ruhl
Electrical and Morphological Properties of ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-Type Dielectrics and Their Stacks for Metal-Insulator-Metal Applications , vol1
  • 2012
JournalArticle
  • W. Lehnert
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Gschwandtner
Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide , vol30
  • 2012

DOI: 10.1116/1.3670876

Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO2 is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO2 are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO2 with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO2 is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiOx with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al2O3 interlayers between electrode and TiO2, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiOx deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 × 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO2 is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • S. Kubotsch
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Properties of atomic-vapor and atomic-layer deposited Sr, Ti, and Nb doped Ta2O5 Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors , vol520
  • 2012

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.199

Atomic Vapor Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition techniques were applied for the depositions of Ta2O5, Ti–Ta–O, Sr–Ta–O and Nb–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Structural and electrical properties were studied. Films, deposited on the TiN bottom electrodes, in the temperature range of 225–400 °C, were amorphous, whereas the post deposition annealing at 600 °C resulted in the crystallization of Nb–Ta–O films. Electrical properties of MIM structures, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics were different for each oxide. On one hand, Ti–Ta–O based MIM capacitors possessed the highest dielectric constant (50), but the leakages currents were also the highest (~ 10− 5 A/cm2 at − 2 V). On the other hand, Sr–Ta–O showed the lowest leakage current densities (~ 10− 9 A/cm2 at − 2 V) as well as the smallest capacitance–voltage nonlinearity coefficients (40 ppm/V2), but the dielectric constant was the smallest (20). The highest nonlinearity coefficients (290 ppm/V2) were observed for Nb–Ta–O based MIM capacitors, although relatively high dielectric constant (40) and low leakage currents (~ 10− 7 A/cm2 at − 2 V) were measured. Temperature dependent leakage-voltage measurements revealed that only Sr–Ta–O showed no dependence of leakage current as a function of the measurement temperature.
JournalArticle
  • T. Blomberg
  • C. Wenger
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • Günther Ruhl
  • P. Baumann
ALD grown NbTaOx based MIM capacitors , vol88
  • 2011
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • C. Wenger
CVD grown ternary high-k oxides for MIM capacitors
  • 2011
JournalArticle
  • T. Blomberg
  • C. Wenger
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • Günther Ruhl
  • P. Baumann
ALD grown NbTaOx based MIM capacitors , vol88
  • 2011
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
MaxCaps – Next Generation Dielectrics for Integrated Capacitors Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2011
JournalArticle
  • C. Wenger
  • M. Lukosius
  • T. Blomberg
  • A. Abrutis
  • P. Baumann
  • Günther Ruhl
ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-type Dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Metal Application (Invited) , vol41
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1149/1.3633654

Atomic Vapor Deposition (AVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques were successfully applied for the depositions of perovskite type dielectrics, namely, Sr-Ta-O, Ti-Ta-O, Sr-Ti-O, Ba-Hf-O, Nb-Ta-O and Ce-Al-O. Thin films were investigated as alternative dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Insulator (MIM) capacitors. Structural and electrical properties are investigated after depositing the metal oxides on 200 mm TiN/Si (100) substrates within the temperature range of 225-400 ºC. Electrical properties, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics are different for each dielectric. The highest dielectric constants were achieved for crystalline SrTiO3 (k=95), crystalline CeAlO3 (k = 60) and amorphous Ti-Ta-O (k = 50) films. However, Sr-Ta-O based MIM capacitors showed the lowest leakage current densities as well as the smallest capacitancevoltage linearity coefficients.
JournalArticle
  • C. Wenger
  • M. Lukosius
  • T. Blomberg
  • A. Abrutis
  • P. Baumann
  • Günther Ruhl
ALD and AVD Grown Perovskite-type Dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Metal Application (Invited) , vol41
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1149/1.3633654

Atomic Vapor Deposition (AVD) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques were successfully applied for the depositions of perovskite type dielectrics, namely, Sr-Ta-O, Ti-Ta-O, Sr-Ti-O, Ba-Hf-O, Nb-Ta-O and Ce-Al-O. Thin films were investigated as alternative dielectrics for Metal-Insulator-Insulator (MIM) capacitors. Structural and electrical properties are investigated after depositing the metal oxides on 200 mm TiN/Si (100) substrates within the temperature range of 225-400 ºC. Electrical properties, investigated after sputtering Au top electrodes, revealed that the main characteristics are different for each dielectric. The highest dielectric constants were achieved for crystalline SrTiO3 (k=95), crystalline CeAlO3 (k = 60) and amorphous Ti-Ta-O (k = 50) films. However, Sr-Ta-O based MIM capacitors showed the lowest leakage current densities as well as the smallest capacitancevoltage linearity coefficients.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
Electrical characteristics of Ti-Ta-O based MIM capacitors , vol29
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1116/1.3534020

Amorphous Ti–Ta–O thin films were deposited by the atomic-vapor deposition technique for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C on 200-mm Si (100) wafers using TiN and TaN as bottom electrode materials. The comparison of electrical properties of MIM capacitors was done after physical-vapor deposited growth of different top electrodes, namely, Au, TiN, TaN, and Ti. Capacitance-voltage measurements revealed that the dielectric constant of 50 can be reached if Ti–Ta–O layers are deposited on TiN and if Au, TaN, or Ti is used as the top electrode. The k value is reduced to 37 if TaN is used as bottom electrode. However, if TiN is used as the top electrode, the k value of the stack is reduced by a factor of 3, from 50 to 17, independent of whether TiN or TaN are used as bottom electrodes. The lowest leakage current values (∼10−8 A/cm2) were observed when gold was used as the top electrode, whereas it increased by 3 orders of magnitude if the top electrode was changed to TiN and even more if the top electrode was changed to TaN or Ti.
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
Single SrTiO3 and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 based MIM capacitors: Impact of the bottom electrode material , vol88
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.022

Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 multilayer dielectric have been deposited on TaN and TiN bottom electrodes. The MIM stacks have been analyzed and compared in terms of electrical and structural properties. The results indicate that MIMs with multilayer dielectrics provide better leakage current performance than the ones with single dielectrics while capacitance density is decreased. Additional Al2O3 layers prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric stack. The decreased capacitance density in MIMs with multilayer dielectric is attributed to the amorphous structure of SrTiO3 and the series capacitance of top and bottom Al2O3 layers. Furthermore, MIM capacitors with single SrTiO3 dielectric layer on TiN electrodes indicated better capacitance density compared to the one with TaN electrodes. The lower capacitance density of the single SrTiO3 dielectric on TaN electrodes is correlated to the interfacial layer formation between SrTiO3 and TaN electrodes.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • A. Abrutis
  • M. Skapas
  • V. Kubilius
  • A. Zauner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Metal-insulator-metal capacitors with MOCVD grown Ce-Al-O as dielectric , vol88
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.044

Ce–Al–O thin films were prepared on 70 nm TiN/Si(1 0 0) substrates by pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PI-MOCVD) for metal–insulator–metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C using two separate Ce and Al precursors. In order to get Ce–Al–O films with different stoichiometry, Al2O3 and CeO2 were mixed with different Ce:Al precursors’ ratios. According to the XRD analysis, the as deposited films were amorphous if more aluminum was injected than cerium, and crystalline – if they are cerium rich. Electrical properties have been investigated in MIM capacitors after e-beam evaporation of Au top electrodes. Oxides possess a dielectric constant of 10–20 in combination with leakage current densities as low as 10−5 A/cm2 at −2 V. The post deposition annealing (PDA) at 600 °C and 850 °C in N2 for 5 min lead to the diffusion of Ti from TiN bottom electrode and formation of the rutile TiO2 phase. Nevertheless, CeAlO3 films were obtained if the ratio of injected Ce:Al was 1:1. The k values increased to 60 in this case, but the leakage current density worsened to 10−3 A/cm2 at −2 V.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
  • P. Baumann
Atomic Vapor Depositions of Ti–Ta–O thin films for Metal–Insulator–Metal applications , vol519
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.239

Atomic Vapor Deposition technique was applied for the depositions of Ti–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and electrical properties were studied. Ti–Ta–O films, with the ratio of Ta/Ti ~ 1.5, deposited at 400 °C on TiN electrodes, were amorphous and possessed a dielectric constant of 50 with low voltage linearity coefficients and leakage currents densities as low as 10− 7 A/cm2 at 1 V. The films, deposited on Si wafers, were amorphous up to the annealing temperature of 700 °C and crystallized in orthorhombic Ta2O5 phase at higher temperatures.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
Electrical characteristics of Ti-Ta-O based MIM capacitors , vol29
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1116/1.3534020

Amorphous Ti–Ta–O thin films were deposited by the atomic-vapor deposition technique for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C on 200-mm Si (100) wafers using TiN and TaN as bottom electrode materials. The comparison of electrical properties of MIM capacitors was done after physical-vapor deposited growth of different top electrodes, namely, Au, TiN, TaN, and Ti. Capacitance-voltage measurements revealed that the dielectric constant of 50 can be reached if Ti–Ta–O layers are deposited on TiN and if Au, TaN, or Ti is used as the top electrode. The k value is reduced to 37 if TaN is used as bottom electrode. However, if TiN is used as the top electrode, the k value of the stack is reduced by a factor of 3, from 50 to 17, independent of whether TiN or TaN are used as bottom electrodes. The lowest leakage current values (∼10−8 A/cm2) were observed when gold was used as the top electrode, whereas it increased by 3 orders of magnitude if the top electrode was changed to TiN and even more if the top electrode was changed to TaN or Ti.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • W. Lehnert
  • C. Wenger
CVD grown ternary high-k oxides for MIM capacitors
  • 2011
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • I. Costina
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Blomberg
Enhanced leakage current behavior of Sr2Ta2O7-x/SrTiO3 bilayer dielectrics for metal-insulator-metal capacitors , vol519
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.001

Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors are one of the most essential components of radio frequency devices and analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits. In order to obtain high capacitance densities in MIM devices, high-k materials have been considered to be promising candidates to replace the traditional insulators. The challenging point is that the dielectric material must demonstrate high capacitance density values with low leakage current densities. In this work, SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors have been investigated and the electrical performance of the devices have been optimized by using bilayered systems of Sr2Ta2O7−x/SrTiO3 with different thicknesses of Sr2Ta2O7−x. Sputtering X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been applied to investigate the interfaces between the thin film constituents of the MIM stacks. The optimized bilayered system provides a leakage current density of 8∗10− 8 A/cm2 at 2 V (bottom electrode injection) and a high capacitance density of 13 fF/μm2.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
From Graphite to Graphene Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2011
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
MaxCaps – Next Generation Dielectrics for Integrated Capacitors Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2011
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • T. Blomberg
  • Günther Ruhl
Single SrTiO3 and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 based MIM capacitors: Impact of the bottom electrode material , vol88
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.022

Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic layer deposited (ALD) single SrTiO3 dielectric and Al2O3/SrTiO3/Al2O3 multilayer dielectric have been deposited on TaN and TiN bottom electrodes. The MIM stacks have been analyzed and compared in terms of electrical and structural properties. The results indicate that MIMs with multilayer dielectrics provide better leakage current performance than the ones with single dielectrics while capacitance density is decreased. Additional Al2O3 layers prevented the crystallization of SrTiO3 in the multilayer dielectric stack. The decreased capacitance density in MIMs with multilayer dielectric is attributed to the amorphous structure of SrTiO3 and the series capacitance of top and bottom Al2O3 layers. Furthermore, MIM capacitors with single SrTiO3 dielectric layer on TiN electrodes indicated better capacitance density compared to the one with TaN electrodes. The lower capacitance density of the single SrTiO3 dielectric on TaN electrodes is correlated to the interfacial layer formation between SrTiO3 and TaN electrodes.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • A. Abrutis
  • M. Skapas
  • V. Kubilius
  • A. Zauner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • C. Wenger
Metal-insulator-metal capacitors with MOCVD grown Ce-Al-O as dielectric , vol88
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2011.03.044

Ce–Al–O thin films were prepared on 70 nm TiN/Si(1 0 0) substrates by pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PI-MOCVD) for metal–insulator–metal (MIM) applications. Depositions were carried out at 400 °C using two separate Ce and Al precursors. In order to get Ce–Al–O films with different stoichiometry, Al2O3 and CeO2 were mixed with different Ce:Al precursors’ ratios. According to the XRD analysis, the as deposited films were amorphous if more aluminum was injected than cerium, and crystalline – if they are cerium rich. Electrical properties have been investigated in MIM capacitors after e-beam evaporation of Au top electrodes. Oxides possess a dielectric constant of 10–20 in combination with leakage current densities as low as 10−5 A/cm2 at −2 V. The post deposition annealing (PDA) at 600 °C and 850 °C in N2 for 5 min lead to the diffusion of Ti from TiN bottom electrode and formation of the rutile TiO2 phase. Nevertheless, CeAlO3 films were obtained if the ratio of injected Ce:Al was 1:1. The k values increased to 60 in this case, but the leakage current density worsened to 10−3 A/cm2 at −2 V.
JournalArticle
  • M. Lukosius
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
  • P. Baumann
Atomic Vapor Depositions of Ti–Ta–O thin films for Metal–Insulator–Metal applications , vol519
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.239

Atomic Vapor Deposition technique was applied for the depositions of Ti–Ta–O oxide films for Metal–Insulator–Metal capacitors used in back-end of line for Radio Frequency applications. Composition, crystallinity, thermal stability and electrical properties were studied. Ti–Ta–O films, with the ratio of Ta/Ti ~ 1.5, deposited at 400 °C on TiN electrodes, were amorphous and possessed a dielectric constant of 50 with low voltage linearity coefficients and leakage currents densities as low as 10− 7 A/cm2 at 1 V. The films, deposited on Si wafers, were amorphous up to the annealing temperature of 700 °C and crystallized in orthorhombic Ta2O5 phase at higher temperatures.
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • I. Costina
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Blomberg
Enhanced leakage current behavior of Sr2Ta2O7-x/SrTiO3 bilayer dielectrics for metal-insulator-metal capacitors , vol519
  • 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2011.01.001

Metal–Insulator–Metal (MIM) capacitors are one of the most essential components of radio frequency devices and analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits. In order to obtain high capacitance densities in MIM devices, high-k materials have been considered to be promising candidates to replace the traditional insulators. The challenging point is that the dielectric material must demonstrate high capacitance density values with low leakage current densities. In this work, SrTiO3 based MIM capacitors have been investigated and the electrical performance of the devices have been optimized by using bilayered systems of Sr2Ta2O7−x/SrTiO3 with different thicknesses of Sr2Ta2O7−x. Sputtering X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been applied to investigate the interfaces between the thin film constituents of the MIM stacks. The optimized bilayered system provides a leakage current density of 8∗10− 8 A/cm2 at 2 V (bottom electrode injection) and a high capacitance density of 13 fF/μm2.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
From Graphite to Graphene Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2011
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • I. Costina
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
Investigations of thermal annealing effects on electrical and structural properties of SrTaO based MIM capacitor , vol87
  • 2010

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2010.07.015

The annealing effects on dielectric and electrode materials in Ti/SrTaO/TaN/TiN/Ti/Si metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors were studied. The electrical and structural properties were investigated after subjecting the samples to annealing temperatures of 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C. The electrical results revealed that the dielectric constant (k value) of Sr–Ta–O increased from 18 to 50 with increasing annealing temperature. This improvement in k value can be associated to the crystallization of dielectric layer. However, the leakage current density increased several orders of magnitudes with increase of the annealing temperatures. This observation was attributed to crystallization of dielectric, degradation of TaN electrode and out-diffusion of Si from the substrate.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Brandl
  • A. Lechner
Analysis of Cu oxide films on Cu by Raman spectroscopy Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2010
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
System for separation of an electrically conductive connection
  • 2010
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Brandl
  • A. Lechner
Analysis of Cu oxide films on Cu by Raman spectroscopy Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2010
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Strasser
  • M. Melzl
  • R. Goellner
  • D. Groteloh
Method of processing a contact pad, method of manufacturing a contact pad, and integrated circuit element
  • 2010
Patent
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Hammer
  • R. Kainzbauer
System for separation of an electrically conductive connection
  • 2010
Patent
  • M. Hammer
  • Günther Ruhl
  • A. Strasser
  • M. Melzl
  • R. Goellner
  • D. Groteloh
Method of processing a contact pad, method of manufacturing a contact pad, and integrated circuit element
  • 2010
JournalArticle
  • C. Baristiran Kaynak
  • M. Lukosius
  • I. Costina
  • B. Tillack
  • C. Wenger
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Rushworth
Investigations of thermal annealing effects on electrical and structural properties of SrTaO based MIM capacitor , vol87
  • 2010

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2010.07.015

The annealing effects on dielectric and electrode materials in Ti/SrTaO/TaN/TiN/Ti/Si metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitors were studied. The electrical and structural properties were investigated after subjecting the samples to annealing temperatures of 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C. The electrical results revealed that the dielectric constant (k value) of Sr–Ta–O increased from 18 to 50 with increasing annealing temperature. This improvement in k value can be associated to the crystallization of dielectric layer. However, the leakage current density increased several orders of magnitudes with increase of the annealing temperatures. This observation was attributed to crystallization of dielectric, degradation of TaN electrode and out-diffusion of Si from the substrate.
JournalArticle
  • C. Wenger
  • M. Lukosius
  • H.-J. Müssig
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Pasko
  • C. Lohe
Influence of the electrode material on HfO2 metal-insulator-metal capacitors , vol27
  • 2009

DOI: 10.1116/1.3071843

TaN and TiN are investigated as bottom electrode materials for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor applications. Atomic vapor deposited HfO2 films are used as high-k dielectric. The influence of the interfacial layer between HfO2 and the bottom electrode on the electrical performance of MIM capacitors is evaluated. The capacitance density as well as the capacitance voltage linearity of high-k MIM capacitors is affected by the electrode material. There is also an impact by TaN and TiN on leakage current density and breakdown strength of the devices.
Contribution
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Krenzer
  • J.-M. Batke
Development of a TiN-CVD process with very high step coverage
  • 2009

DOI: 10.1109/ASMC.2009.5155948

Current high-aspect ratio devices require deposition processes for conducting barrier and electrode films in vias and trenches with increasingly high aspect ratios. In this work we studied the extension of a CVD-TiN process based on the thermal deposition from TDEAT and NH3 in combination with subsequent plasma treatment. We investigated the process parameter space (including deposition temperature, pressure, NH3/TDEAT ratio and total gas flow) applying a DoE with respect to step coverage, deposition rate and electrical resistivity. One challenge is the quantitative determination of step coverage, which we overcame by using mapping Auger Electron Spectroscopy.
JournalArticle
  • C. Wenger
  • M. Lukosius
  • H.-J. Müssig
  • Günther Ruhl
  • S. Pasko
  • C. Lohe
Influence of the electrode material on HfO2 metal-insulator-metal capacitors , vol27
  • 2009

DOI: 10.1116/1.3071843

TaN and TiN are investigated as bottom electrode materials for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor applications. Atomic vapor deposited HfO2 films are used as high-k dielectric. The influence of the interfacial layer between HfO2 and the bottom electrode on the electrical performance of MIM capacitors is evaluated. The capacitance density as well as the capacitance voltage linearity of high-k MIM capacitors is affected by the electrode material. There is also an impact by TaN and TiN on leakage current density and breakdown strength of the devices.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Krenzer
  • J.-M. Batke
Investigation of CVD-TiN layers for high aspect ratios Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2009
Contribution
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Krenzer
  • J.-M. Batke
Development of a TiN-CVD process with very high step coverage
  • 2009

DOI: 10.1109/ASMC.2009.5155948

Current high-aspect ratio devices require deposition processes for conducting barrier and electrode films in vias and trenches with increasingly high aspect ratios. In this work we studied the extension of a CVD-TiN process based on the thermal deposition from TDEAT and NH3 in combination with subsequent plasma treatment. We investigated the process parameter space (including deposition temperature, pressure, NH3/TDEAT ratio and total gas flow) applying a DoE with respect to step coverage, deposition rate and electrical resistivity. One challenge is the quantitative determination of step coverage, which we overcame by using mapping Auger Electron Spectroscopy.
Lecture
  • Günther Ruhl
  • M. Krenzer
  • J.-M. Batke
Investigation of CVD-TiN layers for high aspect ratios Eingeladener Vortrag
  • 2009
JournalArticle
  • G. Roeder
  • C. Manke
  • P. Baumann
  • S. Petersen
  • V. Yanev
  • A. Gschwandtner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • P. Petrik
  • M. Schellenberger
  • L. Pfitzner
  • H. Ryssel
Characterization of Ru and RuO2 thin films prepared by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition , vol5
  • 2008

DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200777865

Ultra‐thin ruthenium (Ru) layers were fabricated by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition in an Aixtron Tricent reactor using a metal‐organic Ru precursor. Layer deposition was performed on different metal barrier combinations and on Al2O3 dielectric layers used in the fabrication of advanced Metal‐Insulator‐Metal (MIM) capacitor structures and on thermal SiO2 as reference structure. Ru layers with a thickness of 10 nm were characterized by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) and additional reference methods such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X‐Ray Reflectometry (XRR). As deposited and in situ annealed Ru layers were characterized by SE applying Drude‐Lorentz‐ and Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) models. It was shown that the deposited layers consist of a Ru‐RuO2 bilayer structure. By in situ annealing, the RuO2 layer thickness is reduced and highly pure Ru films are obtained. On the metal barriers the formation of a metal oxide interface, which is related to the deposition process, was determined.
JournalArticle
  • G. Roeder
  • C. Manke
  • P. Baumann
  • S. Petersen
  • V. Yanev
  • A. Gschwandtner
  • Günther Ruhl
  • P. Petrik
  • M. Schellenberger
  • L. Pfitzner
  • H. Ryssel
Characterization of Ru and RuO2 thin films prepared by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition , vol5
  • 2008

DOI: 10.1002/pssc.200777865

Ultra‐thin ruthenium (Ru) layers were fabricated by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition in an Aixtron Tricent reactor using a metal‐organic Ru precursor. Layer deposition was performed on different metal barrier combinations and on Al2O3 dielectric layers used in the fabrication of advanced Metal‐Insulator‐Metal (MIM) capacitor structures and on thermal SiO2 as reference structure. Ru layers with a thickness of 10 nm were characterized by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) and additional reference methods such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and X‐Ray Reflectometry (XRR). As deposited and in situ annealed Ru layers were characterized by SE applying Drude‐Lorentz‐ and Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) models. It was shown that the deposited layers consist of a Ru‐RuO2 bilayer structure. By in situ annealing, the RuO2 layer thickness is reduced and highly pure Ru films are obtained. On the metal barriers the formation of a metal oxide interface, which is related to the deposition process, was determined.
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Process for the plasma etching of materials not containing silicon
  • 2006
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Process for the plasma etching of materials not containing silicon
  • 2006
Patent
  • F. Erber
  • B. Schönherr
  • T. Lutz
  • C. Ebi
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Franke
  • F. Gans
Verfahren zur Kompensation von Streu-/Reflexionseffekten in der Teilchenstrahllithographie
  • 2006
Patent
  • F. Erber
  • B. Schönherr
  • T. Lutz
  • C. Ebi
  • Günther Ruhl
  • T. Franke
  • F. Gans
Verfahren zur Kompensation von Streu-/Reflexionseffekten in der Teilchenstrahllithographie
  • 2006
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Verfahren zur Seitenwandpassivierung beim Plasmaätzen
  • 2005
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Production method for a halftone phase mask
  • 2005
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Production method for a halftone phase mask
  • 2005
Patent
  • C. Ebi
  • F. Erber
  • T. Franke
  • F. Gans
  • T. Lutz
  • Günther Ruhl
  • B. Schönherr
Method for compensating for scatter/reflection effects in particle beam lithography
  • 2005
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Verfahren zur Seitenwandpassivierung beim Plasmaätzen
  • 2005
Patent
  • C. Ebi
  • F. Erber
  • T. Franke
  • F. Gans
  • T. Lutz
  • Günther Ruhl
  • B. Schönherr
Method for compensating for scatter/reflection effects in particle beam lithography
  • 2005
JournalArticle
  • F. Letzkus
  • J. Butschke
  • M. Irmscher
  • F.-M. Kamm
  • C. Koepernik
  • J. Mathuni
  • J. Rau
  • Günther Ruhl
Dry etch processes for the fabrication of EUV masks , vol73-74
  • 2004

DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2004.02.054

The absorber and buffer etching is a crucial step in the manufacture of EUV masks due to the stringent CD and reflectance requirements. Plasma etching of Cr layers, usually applied as an absorber for conventional masks, induces a resolution-limiting line width reduction. Therefore, new absorber materials for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) masks have to be evaluated. We investigated the etching behaviour of two different layer materials, TaN-I and TaN-II. Dense lines and contact holes down to 100 nm have been realized and an etch bias ⩽+5 nm per feature has been measured. The CD uniformity of lithography and absorber patterning was about 10 nm total range. In addition, etching processes for two different buffer materials, Cr and SiO2, have been developed. These dry etch processes for buffer and absorber layer etching have been successfully applied for EUV test mask fabrication. First results of reflectance measurements of patterned masks showed only a minimal reflectance loss due to mask making of ⩽1%.
Patent
  • J. Mathuni
  • Günther Ruhl
Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum Entlacken eines Bereiches auf einem Maskensubstrat
  • 2004